The amniotic membrane or amnion consists of an epithelium of cuboid cells, a basement membrane whose composition is very similar to that of the conjunctiva and a stromal matrix fully avascular, very rich in collagen and mucopolysaccharides and with few cells, which are mainly some macrophages and fibroblasts. This means that the amnion has a low antigenicity and the immune response against the graft, if it exists, it is certainly light and ineffective.

The mechanisms of action of amniotic membrane graft are histologically explained by:


  • an amniotic epithelium that provides large number of growth factors.
  • a basement membrane that facilitates the migration of the epithelial cells, reinforces  the adhesions of the basal cells, promotes epithelial differentiation and prevents apoptosis, as well as being an ideal substrate for the growth of germinal epithelial cells but keeping their clonal behavior.
  • a stromal matrix containing anti-inflammatory proteins, protease inhibitory substances, antiangiogenic proteins and a component which suppresses signaling by TGF-β as well as the proliferation and differentiation of the myofibroblasts. In addition, an antimicrobial effect against a broad spectrum of bacteria has also been demonstrated in vivo.

 All these biological properties which the amniotic membrane presents, we can summarize them in a series of clinical effects:

  • Facilitates epithelialization, respecting the normal epithelial phenotype
  • Reduces inflammation and corneal neovascularization
  • Decreases the residual scar after tissue regeneration


AmnioVet® conforms easily to the surface of the defect (can be either glued or sutured to the wound surface) and it serves as a potent facilitator in wound healing by its high concentrations of cytokines and growth factors. The host cells can interact with the bioactive cell-adhesion factors within the basement membrane, serving as a substrate for cellular growth. The membrane is hydrophilic and naturally absorbs the surrounding fluids. As part of the healing process the amnion resorbs into the wound. General literature suggests that the membranes completely resorb into the wound in about 14 – 21 days.


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